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Mercury is a toxic metal with significant effects on the thyroid. There is ample evidence that mercury leaches from dental amalgam fillings and contributes to thyroid disease and anemia.
While large doses of mercury can induce hyperthyroidism, smaller amounts can induce hypothyroidism by interfering with both the production of thyroxin (T4) and the conversion of T4 to T3.
Mercury disturbs the metabolism of copper and zinc which are two minerals critical to thyroid function. Gray hair can be an indication of mercury accumulation, more so in females than males.
Mercury causes disruptions to the immune system functioning and promotes the production of IgG and IgE autoantibodies which also are involved in autoimmune thyroid disease.
Different forms of mercury, organic or inorganic, have different effects on the thyroid. Milk and quite likely estrogen cause an increase in the absorption of mercury.
Mercury has a very long half-life in the body with a duration of perhaps many years and has been found in cancerous tissues.
Selenium is the key mineral which protects the body from mercury toxicity. One study showed that cilantro (Chinese parsley) helps remove mercury from the body and protects the body from pre-cancerous lesions.
As the following article indicates mercury gets into our
bodies in a variety of ways including vaccinations. Perhaps the negative
effects we see from vaccines are at least partially the result of toxic
metals. The association of autism with vaccinations may be related to
mercury toxicity. Thimerosal is the mercury-containing preservative that was used in contact lens solutions. Hopefully there are no more of these solutions on the market but if you use contact lens solutions, check the label.
US Congressman Dan Burton Requests Immediate Vaccine Recall
In an October 25, 2000 letter to Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) Secretary Donna Shalala, Congressman Dan Burton (R-IN), Chairman of the House Committee on Government Reform, requested a recall of all vaccines containing Thimerosal. The mercury-based product Thimerosal is added to vaccines as a preservative.
On July 18, 2000 the Committee conducted a hearing entitled, “Mercury in Medicine: Are We Taking Unnecessary Risks?” During the hearing, the FDA admitted that children are being exposed to unsafe levels of mercury through vaccines containing Thimerosal. It was also determined that symptoms of mercury poisoning mimic symptoms of autism -- a disease that has reached epidemic levels in the United States. However, the FDA has chosen to allow pharmaceutical companies to merely phase out their use of Thimerosal, leaving mercury-containing vaccines at public and private health facilities.
In his letter to Secretary Shalala, Chairman Burton stated:
Exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium and mercury is of immediate environmental concern. The present study was aimed at establishing a direct relationship between heavy metal poisoning and thyroid dysfunction. Cadmium and mercury treatment at LD50 levels resulted in severe thyrotoxicosis in the rabbit. Within 24 h of intramuscular administration of cadmium chloride 15 mg.kg-1 body weight (bw) and mercury chloride 20 mg.kg-1 bw, thyroid peroxidase activity increased significantly over the control with a concomitant rise in the triiodothyronine (T3) titre. On the other hand, there was a remarkable fall in the thyroxine (T4) level, and the T3/T4 ratio was high as compared with the control. Evidence indicates that acute heavy metal lethality will induce immediate hyperthyroidism. It is suggested that T3-toxicosis may be produced by a preferential synthesis of T3 and/or preferential deiodination of T4 to T3. Measurement of T3 and T4 levels may thus be utilized as a reliable indicator of heavy metal lethality.
The following study showed that the administration of mercury in the form of mercuric chloride causes significant alterations in copper and zinc metabolism, but does not seem to affect iron metabolism. While the thyroid functions were not examined in this study, the fact that mercury has such profound effects on copper and zinc metabolism suggests that thyroidal function will be disturbed by mercury.
The present study was designed to investigate the effect of mercuric chloride administration on copper, zinc, and iron concentrations in the liver, kidney, lung, heart, spleen, and muscle of rats. The results showed that after dose and time exposure to mercuric chloride, the concentration of mercury in the six tissues was significantly elevated. Data showed that there were no interaction between mercury and tissue iron. There was a considerable elevation of the content of copper in the kidney and liver. The most significant changes in the copper concentration took place in the kidneys. About a twofold increase in the copper content of the kidney was noted after exposure to mercuric chloride (3 mg and 5 mg/kg). Only slight elevations in the copper content occurred in the liver especially in high dose and longer exposure time. In the remaining organs, the copper content was not changed significantly (p > 0.05). The most significant changes in the zinc concentration took place in liver, kidney, lung and heart (5 mg/kg). Marked changes in kidney zinc concentrations were observed at any of the specified doses. Zinc concentrations were significantly increased in kidney of rats sacrificed 9-48 h after s.c. injection of HgCl2 (5 mg/kg); in liver obtained from rats at 18, 24 or 48 h after injection; and in lung after 24 or 48 h of treatment. The heart and spleen zinc concentrations were elevated at 24 and 48 h after injection of HgCl2 (5 mg/kg), respectively. The results of this study implicate that effects on copper and zinc concentrations of the target tissues of mercury may play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute mercuric chloride intoxication.
The following study suggests that mercury content in females can be judged by hair color. Gray hair contains more organic mercury than dark hair in both sexes, but there is a sex difference in that mercury seems to more readily turn hair gray in females than in males.
Title: Mercury concentration in gray hair
Author: Ando T; Wakisaka I; Yanagihashi T; Tomari T; Hatano H
Source: Nippon Eiseigaku Zasshi, 43(6):1063-8 1989 Feb
A pilot experiment carried out on three pigs have confirmed that interaction between inorganic mercury (203HgCl2) and selenium (Na275SeO3) after single intraperitoneal injections are qualitatively uniform in mice and pigs. The detoxifying effect of selenium on mercury toxicity seems to be due to a formation of a biologically inactive complex containing the elements in an equimolar ratio. The complex is unable to pass biological barriers, placenta and choroid plexus and is stored in the liver and the spleen.
Interaction of mercury and selenium was examined in mice given mercuric chloride (25 mumol/kg) intravenously with sodium selenite (25 mumol/kg, iv) according to various administration schedules. Body weight of the mice given mercuric chloride or selenite alone did not increase, but the mice given both compounds simultaneously grew as well as control mice. On the other hand, only a 1-hr shift of administration of either compound canceled the mutual detoxifying effect. The most conspicuous changes in tissue distribution of mercury and selenium and in gel filtration patterns of both elements accumulating in tissues of the mice were observed when both compounds were administered simultaneously. These experimental results indicate that the interaction of mercuric mercury with selenite in mice occurred to the greatest extent upon simultaneous administration, supporting the hypothesis that the interaction primarily occurs in the blood stream.
The following study analyzed mercury and selenium concentrations in cadavers of workers in dental offices and found that there were increased concentrations of selenium and mercury showing that selenium accumulated together with mercury.
Br J Ind Med1991 Nov;48(11):729-34
Mercury and selenium concentrations and their interrelations in organs from dental staff and the general population.
Nylander M, Weiner J
Department of Environmental Hygiene, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
Mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se) concentrations were determined by radiochemical neutron activation analysis in samples from the pituitary glands, occipital cortices, renal cortices, abdominal muscles, and thyroid glands of cadavers. Samples were retrieved from dental staff occupationally exposed to Hg and from the general population. Increased concentrations of both Hg and Se in samples from dental staff showed that Se accumulated together with Hg. Regression analysis of data from the pituitary glands and occipital cortices of dental staff indicated the accumulation of Se at a rough stoichiometric ratio of 1:1 with Hg. The same stoichiometric ratio between the elements was seen in the renal cortices from the general population. The regression analysis showed that a substantial fraction of Se was not associated with Hg; it is assumed that this corresponds to biologically available Se. Concentrations of biologically available Se decreased with advancing age in the pituitary gland, but not in other organs, and varied appreciably between organs.
The results of the following study "suggest that mercury poisoning from dental amalgam may play a role in the etiology of cardiovascular disorders." "Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cells were significantly lower when correlated to increased levels of urine mercury. The amalgam subjects had a greater incidence of chest pains, tachycardia, anemia, fatigue, tiring easily, and being tired in the morning." This indicates that mercury toxicity can induce anemia and all the symptoms of anemia. We have seen elsewhere that there is a high association of anemia with thyroid disorders. Mercury toxicity from dental amalgam would seem to be a prime contributor to anemia and thyroid disease.
The relationship between mercury from dental amalgam and the cardiovascular system.
Department of Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biological Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins 80523.
The findings presented here suggest that mercury poisoning from dental amalgam may play a role in the etiology of cardiovascular disorders. Comparisons between subjects with and without amalgam showed amalgam-bearing subjects had significantly higher blood pressure, lower heart rate, lower hemoglobin, and lower hematocrit. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cells were significantly lower when correlated to increased levels of urine mercury. The amalgam subjects had a greater incidence of chest pains, tachycardia, anemia, fatigue, tiring easily, and being tired in the morning. The data suggest that inorganic mercury poisoning from dental amalgam does affect the cardiovascular system.
PMID: 2270468, UI: 91102526
Squirrel monkeys were exposed to mercury vapour at different concentrations and for different numbers of days. The calculated total mercury absorption ranged between 1.4-2.9 mg (range of daily absorption 0.02-0.04 mg). The monkeys were killed at different intervals after the end of exposure (range 1 month - 3 years) and the eyes were enucleated. Eyes from four un-exposed monkeys were used as control material. Mapping of the mercury distribution in the eye revealed that the non-myelin-containing portion of the optic disc was densely loaded with mercury deposits, which are mostly confined to the capillary walls and the glial columns. The white matter of the brain does not accumulate mercury at these exposure levels, which might suggest that the myelinization process inhibits the accumulation of mercury. The pigmented epithelium of the pars plicata of the ciliary body and of the retina contained a considerable amount of mercury. This finding indicates that mercury is trapped within the melanocytes, which keeps potentially dangerous material from reaching the neural retina. In addition, the retinal capillary walls were densely loaded with mercury deposits, even 3 years after exposure. It was also found that the inner layers of the retina accumulated mercury during a 3-year period. It is known that the biological half-time of mercury in the brain may exceed years. This seems also to be the case for the ocular tissue.
The following study is a strong indictment of the use of mercury in dental materials. Not only is it stated that mercury causes a reduced effectiveness against bacteria such as Chlamydia, Streptococcus, and Borrelia, and Herpes family viruses, but mercury has been found in pre-cancerous and cancerous tissues. Of particular interest was the authors' discovery that cilantro (Chinese parsley) is effective in removing mercury from the body and in reversing pre-cancerous abnormalities.
Acupunct Electrother Res1996 Apr-Jun;21(2):133-60
Significant mercury deposits in internal organs following the removal of dental amalgam, & development of pre-cancer on the gingiva and the sides of the tongue and their represented organs as a result of inadvertent exposure to strong curing light (used to solidify synthetic dental filling material) & effective treatment: a clinical case report, along with organ representation areas for each tooth.
Omura Y, Shimotsuura Y, Fukuoka A, Fukuoka H, Nomoto T
Heart Disease Research Foundation, New York, USA.
Because of the reduced effectiveness of antibiotics against bacteria (e.g. Chlamydia trachomatis, alpha-Streptococcus, Borrelia burgdorferi, etc.) and viruses (e.g. Herpes Family Viruses) in the presence of mercury, as well as the fact that the 1st author has found that mercury exists in cancer and pre-cancer cell nuclei, the presence of dental amalgam (which contains about 50% mercury) in the human mouth is considered to be a potential hazard for the individual's health. In order to solve this problem, 3 amalgam fillings were removed from the teeth of the subject of this case study. In order to fill the newly created empty spaces in the teeth where the amalgams had formerly existed, a synthetic dental-filling substance was introduced and to solidify the synthetic substance, curing light (wavelength range reportedly between 400-520 nm) was radiated onto the substance in order to accelerate the solidifying process by photo-polymerization. In spite of considerable care not to inhale mercury vapor or swallow minute particles of dental amalgam during the process of removing it by drilling, mercury entered the body of the subject. Precautions such as the use of a rubber dam and strong air suction, as well as frequent water suctioning and washing of the mouth were insufficient. Significant deposits of mercury, previously non-existent, were found in the lungs, kidneys, endocrine organs, liver, and heart with abnormal low-voltage ECGs (similar to those recorded 1-3 weeks after i.v. injection of radioisotope Thallium-201 for Cardiac SPECT) in all the limb leads and V1 (but almost normal ECGs in the precordial leads V2-V6) the day after the procedures were performed. Enhanced mercury evaporation by increased temperature and microscopic amalgam particles created by drilling may have contributed to mercury entering the lungs and G.I. system and then the blood circulation, creating abnormal deposits of mercury in the organs named above. Such mercury contamination may then contribute to intractable infections or pre-cancer. However, these mercury deposits, which commonly occur in such cases, were successfully eliminated by the oral intake of 100 mg tablet of Chinese parsley (Cilantro) 4 times a day (for average weight adults) with a number of drug-uptake enhancement methods developed by the 1st author, including different stimulation methods on the accurate organ representation areas of the hands (which have been mapped using the Bi-Digital O-Ring Test), without injections of chelating agents. Ingestion of Chinese parsley, accompanied by drug-uptake enhancement methods, was initiated before the amalgam removal procedure and continued for about 2 to 3 weeks afterwards, and ECGs became almost normal. During the use of strong bluish curing light to create a photo-polymerization reaction to solidify the synthetic filling material, the adjacent gingiva and the side of the tongue were inadvertently exposed. This exposure to the strong bluish light was found to produce pre-cancerous conditions in the gingiva, the exposed areas of the tongue, as well as in the corresponding organs represented on those areas of the tongue, and abnormally increased enzyme levels in the liver. These abnormalities were also successfully reversed by the oral intake of a mixture of EPA with DHA and Chinese parsley, augmented by one of the non-invasive drug-uptake enhancement methods previously described by the 1st author, repeated 4 times each day for 2 weeks.
The following study demonstrates that in genetically susceptible species (and this may include many humans), mercury leaches from dental amalgam fillings and causes a rapid activation of the immune system. Up to a 12-fold increase in IgE concentrations were found within 3 weeks. The mercury was also found to cause large tissue increases in silver, copper, and selenium, which are three minerals that I suspect are important in the control of the immune response. Selenium has been demonstrated to be an important detoxifier of mercury and I suspect that copper and silver are also involved in the mitigation of the toxic effects of mercury.
Activation of the immune system and systemic immune-complex deposits in Brown Norway rats with dental amalgam restorations.
Hultman P; Lindh U; H¨orsted-Bindslev P
Department of Health and Environment, Link¨oping University, Sweden.
J Dent Res, 77(6):1415-25 1998 Jun
Dental amalgam restorations are a significant source of mercury exposure in the human population, but their potential to cause systemic health effects is highly disputed. We examined effects on the immune system by giving genetically mercury-susceptible Brown Norway (BN) rats and mercury-resistant Lewis (LE) rats silver amalgam restorations in 4 molars of the upper jaw, causing a body burden similar to that described in human amalgam-bearers (from 250 to 375 mg amalgam/kg body weight). BN rats with amalgam restorations, compared with control rats given composite resinous restorations, developed a rapid activation of the immune system, with a maximum 12-fold increase of the plasma IgE concentration after 3 wks (p < 0.001; Mann-Whitney's test). LE rats receiving amalgam restorations showed no significant increase of plasma IgE (p > 0.05). After 12 wks, BN rats with amalgam restorations showed significantly increased (p < 0.05) titers of immune-complex (IC) deposits in the renal glomeruli and in the vessel walls of internal organs. These rats also showed a significant (p < 0.05), from six- to 130-fold, increase in tissue mercury concentration in the concentration order kidney > spleen > cerebrum occipital lobe > cerebellum > liver > thymus, and the tissue silver concentration was significantly (p < 0.05) increased from three- to 11-fold. Amalgam-implanted BN rats showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in copper concentration in the kidney and spleen, and in kidney selenium concentration.We conclude that dental amalgam restorations release substantial amounts of their elements, which accumulate in the organs and which, in genetically susceptible rats, give rise to activation of the immune system and systemic IC deposits.
Acute effects of methylmercuric chloride and mercuric chloride on thyroidal functions were examined. The organic mercurial concentration of 4 x 10(-5) M inhibited by 50% of Na+K+ATPase in the membraneous preparation from the hog thyroid, and 6 x 10(-7) M of the inorganic mercurial showed the same extent of the inhibition. The Mg2+ ATPase activity in the preparation was neither affected by CH3HgCl up to a concentration of 2 x 10(-3) M, nor by HgCl2 up to 1 x 10(-4) M. After an intraperitoneal injection to mice of 5 micrograms of mercurial per gram body weight daily for 2 consecutive days, the 4-hour and the 24-hour uptakes of 131I by the thyroids were partially reduced by both organic and inorganic mercurials. A significant reduction in percentages of labeled iodothyronines was demonstrated to suggest that mercurial may cause a coupling defect in the synthesis of iodothyronines. Incubation of hog thyroglobulin with 8 x 10(-3) M of methylmercuric chloride caused no observable aberration in slab disc electrophoreogram, but the protein was apparently denatured by the same concentration of mercuric chloride suggesting that thyroglobulin may carry a large binding capacity against either mercurial, but the inorganic mercurial can be more potent denaturant of the protein. The in vitro lysosomal hydrolysis of the mercurial-pretreated rat thyroglobulin which was labeled with 125I in vivo and fortified with the carrier hog thyroglobulin was not affected, but the direct addition of either mercurial in the medium resulted in a significant inhibition of the proteolytic action. Iodotyrosine deiodinase in the thyroid was inhibited by both mercurials in in vitro and in vivo systems. A partial reduction in the serum bound 131I-iodide in both mercurial treated groups was observed at 4 hours and 24 hours after the radioiodide administration. The blood thyroxine levels estimated by radioimmunoassay were quite reduced in the inorganic mercurial treated group and also moderately reduced in the methylmercurial treated group, indicating that the hormone secretion was affected by mercurials.
Intoxication effect on mouse thyroid by prolonged administration of either CH3HgCl or HgCl2 was studied. It was found by giving CH3 203HgCl and 203HgCl2 through stomach intubation at either a single or a 30 d treatment that thyroid is a moderately susceptible organ to both mercurials. Animals were given 50, 100 and 150 micrograms/d of either mercurial in drinking water for a month. At the lowest amount of HgCl2, body weight was increased, whereas at the highest dose, there was a transient delay in growth. With lower amounts of CH3HgCl, no change in growth was observed. However, at the highest amount, a severe growth inhibition occurred. The thyroid weight was unaffected by lower amounts, but was significantly reduced by 150 micrograms/d of either mercurial. The 24 h radioiodide uptake in the thyroid, expressed by cpm/mg organ weight, was reduced by lower levels of mercurials. CH3HgCl and HgCl2 suppressed the rate of radioiodide incorporation into the iodothyronine fraction, but not into the iodotyrosine fractions, indicating that mercurials do not interfere with organification of iodide but do inhibit the coupling process. Serum thyroxine (T4) level was affected by mercurials, but serum triiodothyronine (T3) was not. This result suggested that even thyroidal secretion of T4 was inhibited by mercurials, but the peripheral conversion of T4 to T3 may not be affected in the maintenance of an active hormone level.
OBJECTIVE--The aim was to study whether functional impairment of the pituitary, thyroid, testes, and adrenal glands of humans occupationally exposed to mercury (Hg) vapour can be shown as a result of accumulation of Hg in these glands. METHODS--Basal concentrations of thyrotrophin (TSH), prolactin, free thyroxine (free T4), free 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (free T3), antibodies against thyroperoxidase, and testosterone in serum, as well as cortisol in morning urine were measured in 41 chloralkali workers exposed (10 years on average) to Hg vapour, and in 41 age matched occupationally unexposed referents. The chloralkali workers had a mean urinary Hg concentration (U-Hg) of 15 nmol/mmol (27 micrograms/g) creatinine, and a mean blood Hg concentration (B-Hg) of 46 nmol/l. For the reference group U-Hg and B-Hg were 1.9 nmol/mmol (3.3 micrograms/g) creatinine and 17 nmol/l respectively. RESULTS--The serum free T4 concentration and the ratio free T4/free T3 were slightly, but significantly, higher in the subgroups with the highest exposure, and the serum free T3 was inversely associated with cumulative Hg exposure. This indicates a possible inhibitory effect of mercury on 5'-deiodinases, which are responsible for the conversion of T4 to the active hormone T3. Serum total testosterone, but not free testosterone, was positively correlated with cumulative Hg exposure. Prolactin, TSH and urinary cortisol concentrations were not significantly associated to exposure. CONCLUSION--Apart from inhibition of the deiodination of T4 to T3, the endocrine functions studied seem not to be affected by exposure to Hg vapour at the exposure levels of the present study. Growth hormone secretion was not studied.
Repeated exposure of Brown Norway (BN) rats to relatively low doses of HgCl2 induces autoantibodies to renal antigens (e.g., laminin) and a membranous glomerulonephropathy characterized by proteinuria. In contrast, Lewis (LEW) rats are "resistant" to the autoimmune effects of mercury and, when exposed to this metal, are protected against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and Heymann's nephritis. To date, there is no information on "suppressive" effects of mercury in naturally occurring (so-called "spontaneous") rat models of autoimmune disease. Therefore, we have administered HgCl2 to diabetes-prone (DP) BB rats, animals that spontaneously develop both insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and thyroiditis. We found that DP rats treated with mercury or water for a period of 40-125 days developed autoantibodies to thyroglobulin, with a higher incidence in HgCl2-injected animals (92% vs. 56% in H2O-injected controls). A novel finding of our study was the detection of autoantibodies to laminin in the same rats, again with an increased incidence after HgCl2 treatment (83% vs. 44%). IgG2a was the most frequently detected isotype of antibodies to laminin, followed by IgG1, IgG2b and IgG2c. The IgG isotype profile suggests that treatment with HgCl2 may activate both Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes in BB rats. In spite of these stimulatory effects on autoantibody responses, we found that there was no difference in the incidence of IDDM and thyroiditis between HgCl2-treated and control animals. We conclude that the suppressive effects of mercury previously observed in EAE and Heymann's nephritis of LEW rats do not occur in "spontaneous" autoimmune IDDM and thyroiditis of BB rats. Therefore, immune suppression caused by HgCl2 cannot be considered a common phenomenon, but may be a genetically determined characteristic of LEW rats, possibly related to a specific or unique cytokine profile of this particular rat strain. In contrast, while mercury does not seem to recruit, induce or rescue regulatory T cell function in DP rats, it does stimulate autoantibody responses in these animals.
An Alsatian dog which had been fed fish contaminated with methyl mercury for 7 years was examined after its death at the age of 12, 4 years after the exposure to methyl mercury had ceased. Two dogs of the same age and breed served as controls. In the exposed dog, mercury was found in all of the organs examined; the highest concentrations were found in the kidneys, and the lowest in the gastrointestinal tract and skeletal muscles. In the central nervous system (CNS) the mercury was fairly uniformly distributed, with 93% in the inorganic state, whereas the skeletal muscles contained approximately 30% inorganic mercury. This demonstrates time-dependent demethylation and suggests a variation in the rate from one type of tissue to another. At the time of death, the mercury level in the dog was still falling. In the control dogs, detectable amounts (0.01 mg kg-1) of mercury were only found in the kidney and liver. The distribution of mercury was determined by a histochemical method (autometallography) for locating mercury in tissue sections. Sections from autometallography of the central nervous system showed large deposits of mercury in all areas of the cerebral hemispheres, the brainstem and the spinal cord, including nerve cells, astrocytes, microglial cells and vessel walls. The granular layer of the cerebellar hemispheres was especially loaded, while only a few granules were present in the Purkinje cells. In the leptomeninges the vessels and the macrophages were heavily encrusted. High amounts of histochemically demonstrable mercury were observed in the liver, thyroid gland and kidney. In the control dogs, all the organs examined were practically devoid of deposits.
Peroxidase in mouse thyroid was inhibited by mercuric chloride but not by methylmercury in in vivo and in vitro systems (Nishida, et al., J. Histochem. Cytochem., 37, 723 (1989)). To identify the reason for the difference, the present study was conducted to examine whether methylmercury is indeed bound within cells or tissues. Mice were given radioactive methylmercury by intubation for 18 d and the tissues were dissected out and vacuum-dried. With this procedure, free methylmercury was evaporated off and the bound mercury remained. The thyroid, liver, kidney and fats examined showed no loss of radioactivity under the vacuum, indicating that the mercury was bound to the thyroid, as well as the other tissues. Radioactive mercuric chloride was nonvolatile regardless of the presence or absence of the tissues. The preferential affinity of methylmercury for SH-containing materials was re-confirmed by this method.
This study was designed to characterize the interaction of CH3HgCl or HgCl2 with thyroid peroxidase (TPO). Two types of experiments were performed. First, the thyroids from rats that were given 5.6 mg/kg/day of either CH3HgCl or HgCl2 for 2 weeks by intubation were subjected to histochemical treatment and then to electron microscopy. TPO activities in all cell compartments were inhibited by HgCl2 but not by CH3HgCl. Morphological observation showed that taller epithelia were induced by HgCl2, whereas flattened epithelia forming large follicles were induced by CH3HgCl. The serum thyrotropin level was substantially lowered by CH3HgCl but was unchanged by HgCl2. Second, the guaiacol oxidation by TPO in isolated and ruptured pig thyroid cells was spectrophotometrically monitored in the presence of either CH3HgCl or HgCl2. The TPO was not inhibited by CH3HgCl but was inhibited by HgCl2. These results indicated that CH3HgCl induced a hypothyroid state without affecting TPO, whereas HgCl2 inhibited TPO and induced a hypertropic state owing to compensation for loss of enzyme activity, and that the lack of inhibitory activity of CH3HgCl was not due to the inability to penetrate the cells. Therefore, there appeared to be a differential interaction of organic and inorganic forms of mercurials with the thyroid.
Thyroid peroxidase (TPO), the major enzyme in the thyroid hormone synthesis, multifunctionally catalyzes (1) iodide oxidation, (2) iodination of the precursor protein, and (3) a coupling reaction of iodotyrosyl residues. The present study was carried out to examine the mercurial effects on the iodination, the second step of TPO. Purified porcine thyroglobulin or bovine serum albumin as acceptor protein was iodinated with [125I]NaI and H2O2 by purified porcine TPO. Iodinated protein was separated by acid precipitation on membrane filter or paper chromatography. Both CH3HgCl and HgCl2 dose-dependently inhibited the iodination, but HgCl2 was more potent to inhibit the iodination than CH3HgCl. These mercurial effects on the second step resemble the effects on the third step which were already reported; but are in marked contrast to the effects on the first step, where TPO was inhibited by HgCl2 but never by CH3HgCl.
The following study demonstrates how mercury can damage a fetus by interfering with the selenoenzymes and thyroid hormones.
Environ Res1999 Apr;80(3):208-14
In utero methylmercury exposure differentially affects the activities of selenoenzymes in the fetal mouse brain.
Watanabe C, Yoshida K, Kasanuma Y, Kun Y, Satoh H
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Seiryo-machi, Sendai, 980-8575, Japan. firstname.lastname@example.org
Pregnant ICR mice were subcutaneously injected with 0,5, or 3x3 mg Hg/kg of methylmercury (MeHg) on days 12,13, and 14(G12-14) of gestation and were sacrificed on G17. Activity of selenoenzymes, including glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and 5'- or 5-iodothyronine deiodinases (5'-DI, 5-DI), was determined in fetal brain and placenta. MeHg did not affect the concentration of Se in these tissues, while it significantly inhibited the activity of GPx in the fetal brain and placenta, but not in the maternal brain. Although the levels of thyroid hormones in the maternal and fetal plasma were not affected by MeHg, 5-DI decreased and 5'-DI increased in the fetal brain, as if they had responded to hypothyroidism. Because the level of T4 in the fetal plasma was not affected by MeHg, these changes in enzymatic activities may result in a harmful excess of T3 in the fetal brain. In addition, 5-DI activity was increased in the placenta of MeHg-treated mice. These effects of prenatal MeHg exposure on fetal and placental DIs differed from those of dietary-induced Se deficiency, where the activities of DIs were decreased or not affected. Further evaluation of the effect of MeHg on selenoenzymes, especially 5-DIs, is warranted. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
In the following study the author states that ingestion of milk can increase the absorption of mercury up to 10 times. Other studies have shown that cadmium uptake can be increased significantly by simultaneous administration of estrogen. It's possible that it is the estrogen in milk which accounts for the accelerated accumulation of mercury from the diet. It is also stated that mercury in a mother is transferred to an infant through breast milk.
Subject: Flu Shots and mercury
"According to Hugh Fudenberg, MD, the world's leading immunogeneticist and 13th most quoted biologist of our times (nearly 850 papers in peer review journals): If an individual has had 5 consecutive flu shots between 1970 and 1980 (the years studied) his/her chances of getting Alzheimer's Disease is 10 times higher than if he/she had one, 2 or no shots.
Dr. Fudenberg said it was so and that it was due to mercury and aluminum that is in every flu shot (and most childhood shots). The gradual mercury and aluminum buildup in the brain causes cognitive dysfunction. Is that why Alzheimer's is expected to quadruple.
Subj: [hyperthyroidism] hair analysis
Date: 3/23/00 7:30:25 PM Pacific Standard Time
From: email@example.com (Swan)
Hi group. I got the hair analysis back. The only suggest was to add 2mg
of copper to the multi-vitamin, which I already do. It said my zinc
shampoo could affect the reading for zinc, which was in the midline
acceptable. Mercury is one asterick above the low level and it is
suggested I look over the environment and water to help get it under
control, but it isn't too bad. I am the one who eats fish for protein
and have had these fillings in my teeth over 30 years. Chromium, which
is know to contribute to diabetes (which leads to hypoT) hypoglycemia,
and abnormal cholesterol, was below detection. It is suggested I begin
supplement but warns it will take years to build up to acceptable.
Selenium is detectable but supplementation is advised and takes years
to build up. Lithium, which John says may contribute to hyperT, is
undetectable but the lab doesn't say anything about it or cobalt.
Vanadium is midline. I don't like that aluminum, lead, or cadium are
detectable (but low). It suggests 500 calcium/300 mag that too much can
lead to kidney stones. Still, I take 1000/500 and have just made
midrange with both. I got this done at KingJames Lab 800-437-1404 for
$39.http://www.kingjamesomegatech-lab.com/ Yes it was worth it too me.
Also, the site has a neat thing about getting rid of mercury, at least
for a period of time, called DMSA.
I am adding this so you get to find it if you don't do surfing well.
Thanks for showing interest. I don't think I am too concerned but
certainly will include a single additional bottle of chromium to the
already bunch of supplements of mine. Swan
What is DMSA? DMSA is an abbreviation for 2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid.
It is also marketed under the trade names "Chemet" and "Succimer." It
is a FDA approved drug for treatment of lead toxicity in children. DMSA
is also an excellent oral chelating agent for removing mercury from the
body. It crosses the blood-brain barrier and removes toxic mercury from
the brain and other body tissues. [See Aaseth, J. et al., Analyst,
What is the Urine Mercury Test? A provocative dose of DMSA is provided
by the lab along with a container for a 6-hour urine collection. When
the analysis of the urine indicates significant levels of mercury are
present, it is a signal that the body tissue levels are high.
What happens if the test result indicates high levels of mercury? If
the mercury level is high, a prescription for DMSA can be given in
conjunction with the removal of the source(s) of mercury contamination.
There are usually 25 capsules (500 mg each) in a prescription and one
pill is taken three times a week for about 2 months.
What happens after the course of DMSA is concluded? It is recommended
that a dentist knowledgeable in the proper procedure of amalgam filling
removal be consulted within one month and mercury amalgam fillings be
replaced with composite or gold. A dentist experienced in amalgam
removal can be found be contacting either The International Academy of
Oral Medicine and Toxicology (407-298-2450) or The Academy of
Biological Dentistry (408-659-5385).
What happens if mercury amalgam fillings are not replaced? Although it
is emphatically recommended that mercury amalgam fillings be properly
replaced, if this is not done or is postponed, it is predictable that
tissue levels of mercury in the body will build up again as mercury is
constantly released from the teeth. In such cases, periodically
repeating urine mercury testing and a course of DMSA chelation therapy
Can DMSA be taken the day of and day after dental work involving
mercury amalgam in order to remove any "stray" amalgam (mercury) from
the body? Yes.
How is the DMSA obtained? The doctor will give the patient a
prescription, then fax your prescription to a compounding pharmacy and
give the patient a phone number to contact the pharmacy. The patient
will need to contact the pharmacy directly with method of payment. The
pharmacy will then air mail the DMSA to you.
Is it possible to present the prescription through prescription
insurance plans or at another pharmacy? Retail pharmacies dispense the
brand name "Chemet" form of DMSA in 1/5 the potency recommended. The
compounding pharmacy provides the DMSA in a generic form that is
substantially less costly than the Chemet. If Chemet is used, 5 times
the amount needs to be taken. Insurance coverage may be applicable to
compounding pharmacies; check with the pharmacy when you confirm the
Are there any side effects to using DMSA? There are usually little, if
any, side effects to DMSA at the recommended dose. However, in some
cases, as the body rids itself of the mercury, there could be some
detoxification symptoms that might occur. If this is the case, the
temporary ill effects of those symptoms are far less of a problem than
the permanent ill effect of high levels of mercury in the tissue.
What kind of improvement should be noted using the DMSA? Most commonly,
as the mercury is removed from the system, people will notice an
improvement in short-term memory, sharper concentration, and a decrease
in "foggy" thinking.
More information about mercury? See: Frackelton JP, Christensen, RL,
"Mercury poisoning and its potential impact on hormone regulation and
aging: Preliminary clinical observations using a new therapeutic
approach," J. Advan. Med. 11:9-25(1998) and the HOT LINKS section of
this web site.
Call the lab at (800)437-1404 to arrange for the submission of a
specimen or for more details.US EPA Proposes
Regulations to Cut Mercury Emissions From Coal-Fired Power Plants - Carol
Browner, head of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), said they
would be proposing new regulations requiring coal-fired power plants to cut their toxic emissions of mercury. "Mercury from power plants settles over waterways, polluting rivers and lakes, and contaminating fish," she said in a
statement. "The greatest source of mercury emissions is power plants, and they have never been required to control these emissions before now." Mercury is a highly toxic substance and can cause significant adverse health effects. Source: Mercola.com
The following is an article from Dr. Mercola's site, www.mercola.com,
about the connection between mercury toxicity and autism. It basically states
that the symptoms of autism are identical to the symptoms of mercury toxicity
and that mercury toxicity is most likely the cause of autism. Infant get mercury
toxicity from vaccinations because of the mercury-containing compound thimerosal.
Thimerosal used to be used as a preservative in contact lens solution and may be
in many other substances. Look at all products for thimerosal and any chemical
with "mer" in it. This "mer" may indicate that it is a
mercury compound. If you have children you don't want them to receive any
vaccination with mercury in it.
Autism and Mercury
by Tim O'Shea,DC
This article is excerpted from Dr. O'Shea's forthcoming revised edition of The Sanctity of Human Blood.
Inquiry into vaccine safety is exploding like never before, even in the popular press. Research coming from dozens of mainstream medical studies can no longer be easily suppressed, as it has been in the past, especially with the prevalence of online information exchange.
Last September, some 2,000 people, mostly MDs, assembled at the Town and Country resort in San Diego to hear the latest research on autism. Following the April 2000 Congressional hearings on autism and vaccines, this epidemic can no longer be ignored.
The figure of one autistic infant for every 150 is now widely documented.
Dr. Stephanie Cave presented enlightening data on mercury toxicity, drawn largely from the brilliant work of Sallie Bernard. Dr. Cave explained how:
By age two, American children have received 237 micrograms of mercury through vaccines alone, which far exceeds current EPA "safe" levels of .1 mcg/kg. per day. That's one-tenth of a microgram, not one microgram.
Three days in particular may be singled out as spectacularly toxic for infants:
Day of birth: hepatitis B-12 mcg mercury
30 x safe level
At 4 months: DTaP and HiB on same day - 50 mcg mercury
60 x safe level
At 6 months: Hep B, Polio - 62.5 mcg mercury
78 x safe level
At 15 months the child receives another 50 mcg
41 x safe level
These figures are calculated for an infant's average weight in kilograms for each age.
These one-day blasts of mercury are called "bolus doses". Although they far exceed "safe" levels, there has never been any research conducted on the toxicity of such bolus doses of mercury given to infants all these years.
Historically, the toxicity of mercury has been known for more than a century. The Mad Hatter was more than a fantasy character from Alice in Wonderland. Mad Hatter's disease became well known in England in the mid-1800s, when hat-makers were subject to inhaling the vapors from the mercury-based stiffening compound they used on felt to make top hats.
Sources of Mercury
It is interesting to learn that common household remedies that were used up into the 1960s like mercurochrome and "teething powder" were often the cause of acute mercury poisoning and disease.
In the U.S., EPA mercury toxicity studies have involved contamination from fish, air, and other environmental sources. This is inorganic mercury (methylmercury).
Methylmercury has long been associated with serious neurological disorders, demyelinating diseases, gut disease, and visual damage.
The mercury in vaccines, however, is in the form of thimerosal, which is 50 times more toxic than plain old mercury (methylmercury).
Reasons for this include:
Thimerosal is organic mercury
Once it is in nerve tissue, converted irreversibly to
its inorganic form.
Thimerosal is converted to ethylmercury, an organic form that has a preference for nerve cells.
Without a complete blood-brain barrier, an infant's brain and spinal cord are sitting ducks. Once in the nerve cells, mercury is changed back to the inorganic form and becomes tightly bound. Mercury can then remain for years, like a time-release capsule, causing permanent degeneration and death of brain cells.
Bernard also notes that the body normally clears mercury by fixing it to bile, but before six months of age, infants don't produce bile. Result: mercury can't be excreted.
Four separate government agencies have set safe levels for methylmercury, but no safe levels have ever been set for thimerosal, because thimerosal isn't included in toxicity studies.
Theoretically, that means that the above excesses of safe levels of mercury on the single days listed above are actually 50 times higher.
Does the fact that the mercury is accompanied by a vaccine somehow place it above scrutiny? The Sallie Bernard study of vaccines and mercury toxicity was probably the main reason Congress began to see the obvious correlation.
Mercury And Vaccines
Here's a curious "coincidence." In the late 1930s, Leo Kanner identified autism as a new type of mental disorder. So when was thimerosal introduced into vaccines?
A few years ago, Bernard and her associates began to notice a striking similarity between the symptoms of autism and the symptoms of mercury poisoning. The more research she did, the more it seemed that these two diseases were virtually identical.
Autism and mercury poisoning damage the: brain/nerve cells; eyes; immune system; gastrointestinal system; muscle control; and the speech center.
Although mercury toxicity has been studied for decades, and EPA safety levels have been set, during all that time a child's greatest exposure to mercury - thimerosal in vaccines - was never even included in the toxicity studies!
The talk has always been about methylmercury from seafood and the environment, totally ignoring the two most toxic sources of mercury for children: vaccines and dental amalgams.
The EPA has no jurisdiction over drugs.
That's the FDA's job. This is why vaccines and amalgams don't even figure into the equation when it comes to setting "safe" levels of mercury.
But the FDA does have jurisdiction over drugs and drug companies, right? And over drug company publications, like the Merck Manual, the standard cookbook for drugs and diseases found in every doctor's office in the world.
Surely the FDA, as the government agency charged with safeguarding the nation's health, would want the section on mercury toxicity to warn doctors about the two biggest sources for children: thimerosal and dental amalgams, wouldn't you think?
Yet looking at the Merck Manual (1999), in the section
on mercury poisoning (p. 2636), thimerosal and dental amalgams again are not
How can this be, when mercury is widely acknowledged as the third most deadly toxin in the world and thimerosal and amalgams dwarf the trace amounts of mercury from fish and other environmental sources of mercury?
Only one thing can a blackout information over an entire area of study for years at a time in this way - big money.
Such an omission probably wouldn't have anything to do with the revolving door that exists between the FDA; the EPA; the NIH;
"and the sweet positions held by their members before and after those grueling years of public service; or with the 800 waivers of the conflict of interest rule that the FDA has granted in the past two years to "experts," who are paid consultants to the drug companies-consultants who are also members of the FDA advisory committees that make decisions about whether or not to approve vaccines and drugs..." (USA Today, Sept. 25, 2000)
No, of course not.
Soaking up the Mercury
In the San Diego conference on autism, Dr. Amy Holmes gave perhaps the only lucid presentation about treatment. She explained how chelating drugs alone, which go through the blood like Pac Man munching up mercury, don't do much good for autism.
That's because most mercury clears from the blood very soon. Mercury in thimerosal is stored in the gut, liver and brain, and as previously mentioned, becomes very tightly bound to the cells. Once inside those cells, or inside the blood-brain barrier, the mercury is reconverted back to its inorganic form.
Locked into these cells, the mercury can then do either immediate cell damage or become latent and cause the onset of autism, brain disorders, or digestive chaos years later.
Dr. Holmes reported success using alphalipoic acid as an agent to cross the blood-brain barrier to soak up mercury. Once the mercury is brought back into the bloodstream, standard chelators like DMSA can then take it out.
Dr. Holmes has used her protocol on about 300 autistics so far, and shows consistent increases in IQ scores.
FDA: Protector of Whom?
In the face of all this new awareness, it was astounding that in July 2000 the FDA came out with the "parallel-universe" pronouncement that "vaccines have safe levels of mercury."
Especially after their 1998 position:
"... over-the-counter drug products containing thimerosal and other mercury forms are not generally recognized as safe and effective."
As if there were any doubt as to who's really running the show, inconceivable also is the impotence of FDA's request to the vaccine manufacturers to discontinue the use of thimerosal in vaccines (LINK TO ARTICLE ON SITE) The same month that MMWR published this, the CDC made the same milquetoast request.
It's a bit like saying: "Hey guys, since all these
kids are turning into vegetables and most of our researchers know it's the
mercury, would you mind not putting any more thimerosal in your vaccines,
The members of the FDA who decide which vaccines get approved make up the advisory board. In his recent House investigation on vaccines, Rep. Dan Burton found out that financial statements of advisory board members are "incomplete."
Noting that this is the only branch of government that allows incomplete financials, in September 2000, Burton called the advisory board's sweetheart arrangements with the vaccine manufacturers a "violation of the public trust."
This includes 70 percent of advisory board members owning stock in vaccines, owning patents on vaccines, and accepting salaries and benefits as employees of the drug companies.
A Matter of Trust
Still think you can trust the government or your physician with your children's blood? Despite the facts and events cited above, consider this joint statement of the U.S. Public Health Services and the American Academy of Pediatrics:
"There is a significant safety margin incorporated into all the acceptable mercury exposure limits. There are no data or evidence of any harm caused by the level of exposure that some children may have encountered in following the existing immunization schedule ... Infants and children who have received thimerosal-containing vaccines do not need to be tested for mercury exposure" (TRY TO REPLACE THIS WITH LINK FROM SITE MMWR, vol. 45, 1999).
These are blatant Orwellian distortions. No harm?
It is beyond the scope of this paper to really go into the politics of mercury. In researching mercury toxicity, a whole area of "dry rot" has been unearthed that deserves its own story. This is the shocking story of how the American Dental Association and the California Dental Association have been systematically hiding the truth about mercury toxicity in fillings for decades.
Silver fillings aren't just silver. They're 50 percent mercury and extremely toxic; every dentist knows it (www.altcorp.com,http://www.amalgam.org/).
In a ludicrous blast of irony, both the ADA and the CDA have inserted into their "code of ethics" strict commandments forbidding dentists from ever revealing to patients the realities of mercury toxicity.
No dentist is allowed to recommend removal of mercury amalgams for health reasons, nor may tell the patient about mercury toxicity even if the patient asks. This gag order has been in place for since the beginning of American dentistry. Exaggeration? Check their websites out:
Do you think dentists put mercury into their own families' teeth? Ask them. Anyone who is not a dentist is not constrained by the gag order, imposed on American dentists by the ADA, against telling patients what many perceptive researchers in the field of mercury toxicity already know: that no children should ever get mercury amalgam fillings.
Laughingstock of the West
Researchers across Europe are generally appalled at the massive amounts of vaccines given to American children under two years old. Although Europeans are not as obsessed with vaccines as we are, they do vaccinate.
But most of Europe gives very few vaccinations to children under two years old, primarily because of the unformed gut, immune system, and blood-brain barrier.
This intellectual isolation of ours regarding vaccines is a testimony to the suffocating "brain control" exerted on us by the popular press and all media. Like sheep to the slaughter, we don't know enough to be appalled by our own ignorance.
Headlining the September 2000 San Diego Conference was Andrew Wakefield, the British surgeon whose shocking new discoveries show that mercury toxicity alone is not the only factor linking vaccines with the autism epidemic. Dr. Wakefield's research centers around the MMR vaccine - measles/mumps/rubella - which does not contain thimerosal.
Expanding on his presentation at the April 2000 Burton hearings, Dr. Wakefield explained how at least three-quarters of autistics have pathologically blocked bowels, due to the huge swelling of the tissue lining the intestine.
In virtually every autistic patient they examined, this nodular hyperplasia is both an immune response and an autoimmune response that Wakefield and O'Leary have clearly linked to the presence of measles virus from the MMR shot. No other virus was found in those cells.
It is a new bowel pathology.
Wakefield showed graphs of the U.S. and U.K. 10 years apart that were identical in tracing the skyrocketing incidence of autism just after the MMR vaccine was introduced.
He also showed how the incidence of measles had dropped over 85 percent on its own before the MMR was introduced.
One incredible study cited by Wakefield showed how 76 percent of children whose mothers were exposed to atypical measles became autistic after the MMR shot! He called this a "background susceptibility" or predisposition to autism.
Wakefield reminds us that in neither country have there ever been comparative studies on giving multiple vaccines (polyvalent) on the same day.
This custom of ours, with both the DPT and the MMR, is not scientific by any stretch, and is primarily for the convenience of those administering the shots, and those being paid per vaccine. As a result, there is a good chance of geometric ill effects.
Then Wakefield cited the original MMR study (Buynak, Journal of the American Medical Association 1969, vol. 207).
Not only was the safety of multiple vaccines never mentioned, there was no follow-up to the study to see if their conclusions were correct.
In the usual manner of testing vaccines on the live population, MMR was simply tacked onto the mandatory schedule, and we've never looked back.
Despite studies in 1981 on Air Force personnel showing major synergistic adverse effects in the gut from the combination of measles and rubella vaccines, the mandatory schedule went unchanged.
A Glimmer of Hope
Despite these formidable obstacles, doubts are creeping into the overall public "consciousness" about the safety of vaccines. At one in 150, the fact of autism as an epidemic can no longer be covered up.
The work of Wakefield, O'Leary, Megson and Bernard is getting more and more difficult to explain away. Rep. Dan Burton seems relentless in his efforts to acquaint Congress with the meretricious relationship between the FDA Advisory Committee and the vaccine manufacturers.
The massive advertising campaign about the safety of vaccines in the popular media, which is certain to be stepped up in the next few months, is going to look very hollow in the light of clean, unbiased research that is not funded by parties who stand to make billions from certain predetermined results.
And the internet makes this well-referenced, scientific work accessible to the public without the usual monodimensional smokescreen from the popular press.
Ultimately, the value of the San Diego "Conference
on Autism" was its signal that autism will not be allowed to slip from the
public awareness, like so many other feature stories that come and go. The
simple truth has been unveiled, and anyone who looks can see it clearly: our
prime question should not be asking how we can cure autism once it occurs. The
evidence is now overwhelming that in most cases, this new epidemic that we call
autism is a preventable disease.
DR. MERCOLA'S COMMENT:
Congratulations to Dr. O'Shea for an excellent review of this important topic.